The Meaning of Serial Arguments…


Part of the serial argument example, not necessarily related to the paper…

A Higher Meaning of Serial Arguments

Jason M. Roebuck

Northwest Christian University


The established models and schemes have been used to help define the basic structure of an argument.  Extensive analysis has been done to shed some light on the reason serial arguments happen and what determines their chance of continuing.  The studies used for this paper are the hypothesized model which considered rumination, conflict intensity and perceived resolvability, as well as the conflict linkage model and the Conversation Argument Coding System (CACS).  The research that I used mostly studied romantic partners, so my review will consider that relationship exclusively.  It is my intention to show that the will of God, as well as his mercy and love, that provides a similar explanation to much of the research that has been done on serial arguments.

A Higher Meaning of Serial Arguments

It is funny how the first article I read uses plenty of examples to illustrate the importance of context.  In the end, the article mentions that consideration of context is a limitation to the results of the study. (Hample, Richards and Na, 2012, p. 462)  The study of serial arguments is important to understand the nature of how arguments evolve over time.  It is the focus of my paper to show that the work of many researchers agrees with the work that was begun by God in at least two serious people over 17 years ago.

In order to start my argument, here is an example that will illustrate the power of serial arguments:

A husband tries to make a comment to his wife about how blatant references to sexual content on clothing or the revealing nature of some outfits, can only lead to lust in people’s minds.  To which, the wife will respond that she does not think that way, therefore it doesn’t matter what clothes she or other women wear, especially if they think the outfit is cute.  The response is she denies the truth and the argument escalates into a debate over whether or not Christians are responsible for the salvation of others.

Hample et al. (2012) suggested that the degree to which the argument will continue is based on the imagined interactions that might be taking place between arguments.  Also, the suggestion is made that imagined interactions between episodes of the argument are a determining factor for how the conflict will proceed.  The conflict linkage model discusses at length the research that shows how the different variables to the argument effect the ability to not only continue the argument, but produce a positive outcome.  (Hample et al., 2012, p. 475)  It is clear that the results show that this model creates a way to analyze the imagined interactions, as well as the actual episodes of arguments.  The results allow you to see the reasons for an argument’s continued nature.  The limitations of the conflict linkage model are that the sample size is limited in this study and the nature and content of the argument was not factored in to the study.  Obviously, the sample size of my one argument would be too small to add any more truth to the study.  However, the nature of the argument and/or content give me reason to believe that this argument will continue, and nothing that I read in this study contradicts that idea.

Next, let’s consider the concept of rumination, or ‘‘a class of conscious thoughts that revolve around a common instrumental theme and that recur in the absence of immediate environmental demands requiring thought … ’’. (Carr, Shrodt and Ledbetter, 2012, p. 483)  This concept relates to the idea of imagined interactions directly.  At the beginning of the article, it is proposed that the conflict intensity is the one variable of the three considered; rumination, conflict intensity and perceived resolvability, which would have the greatest impact on whether the argument will continue.  However, throughout the analysis of the three factors that are presented in this article, it shows that the perceived resolvability is a much more important factor in determining the probability of the argument continuing.  Since this model uses the hypothesized structural model, it starts out with some ideas that could be proven false.  The results of the study show that the fourth hypothesis, which says that conflict intensity is negatively associated with the likelihood of continuing the serial argument, is mostly proven wrong.  (Carr et al., 2012, p. 485) This study draws some great conclusions about the way these three factors can determine the probability of and motivation to continue the argument.  Finally, it states that it is limited by the nature of this study, which took responses from only one of the participants in the argument.

The Conversation Argument Coding Scheme is not used to specifically study the impact of variables in serial arguments.  (Johnson and Averbeck, 2010, p)  However, the same rationale that makes the conclusion about the noteworthiness of interpersonal partner communication over a specific topic, can be made about the communication over a specific topic during a series of arguments.  It was unfortunate that this study did not consider the impact of computer-mediated communication in its analysis of the argument.  However, the article states that it would be interesting to see if computer-mediated communication would have an effect on the way two people enact an argument.  Finally, the idea of chronemics creates another variable which was not studied, although it is similar to the serial argument.  It would be interesting to see the results related to the impact of patiently waiting to get to a conclusion.


Reading the articles about serial arguments was exciting because there are plenty of serial arguments in a marriage.  The serial argument example that is mentioned at the beginning of my paper is one that comes up often between me and my wife.  Most likely, the perceived resolvability from an outside observer is not very high, but nothing is impossible with God.  If two people in a relationship are led by the Holy Spirit to work together, they will allow God to bring them to a more perfect union.  After researching the concept of serial arguments, it seems to me that considering ideas like rumination, conflict intensity, perceived resolvability, and imagined interaction, might just be the key to more integrative arguments.  This knowledge of the anatomy of an argument will be a link to a better connection to the perfect will of God for our marriage.   Conflict in the future will be an example to our four children of what a marriage that has God at the center looks like. The two serious people that began to form a family over 17 years ago, have God to thank for the grace to live together in harmony.  It is through the mercy of God, as well as his love that has formed our consciences for dealing with conflict in the past.  It would be interesting to study, if couples that study these variables and their effects on serial arguments, actually do argue better than those that have never studied them.  There is no doubt that God can supply the patience married couples need to love each other through any conflict.


Carr, K., Schrodt, P., & Ledbetter, A. M. (2012). Rumination,            Conflict Intensity, and Perceived Resolvability as Predictors        of Motivation and Likelihood of Continuing Serial Arguments.        Western Journal of Communication, 76(5), 480-502.

Hample, D., Richards, A. S., & Na, L. (2012). A Test of the               Conflict Linkage Model in the Context of Serial Arguments.          Western Journal of Communication, 76(5), 459-479.

Johnson, A. J., & Averbeck, J. M. (2010). Using the                          Conversation Argument Coding Scheme to Examine                     Interpersonal Conflict: Insights and Challenges.                            Communication Methods & Measures, 4(1/2), 114-132.

Good news…A little to much for Twitter today!


I didn’t read the readings today, but I watched the reflection on the gospel.  You can watch it here if you want to…REFLECTIONS

It was the message that we hear at the end of the gospel today when Jesus says, “But as to what is within, give alms, and behold, everything will be clean for you.”  (Luke 11:41  NABRE)  Whatever we feel convicted about today, as far as our sinfulness, we can make up for it by giving alms.  It is still a good idea to make it to confession at your earliest opportunity, but regardless of how off base we have been in our understanding of our following the will of God, we know that Jesus has given us a way out.

Obviously, it is not good to make plans to give alms because we know we will disregard the will of God.  However, when we realize that we have fallen short, which we will, it is important to know that there is a path to repentance that should include a radical look at the needs of others.

Finally, it is not enough just to give alms, but we must plan on making the world a better place through our work and our ministry.  This video I found makes a bridge from my last post about modesty and lust, as well as what else we must do besides give alms to make up for the wrongs that have been done to society.

Our Lady of Sorrows, pray for us!


Servite Rosary

This devotion to the Our Sorrowful Mother was originated in the Thirteenth century. It recalls the Sorrows the Virgin Mother of God endured in compassion for the suffering and death of her Divine Son.
How to pray the Rosary of the Seven Sorrows

1. An Act of Contrition:

O, my Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ, behold me before your divine presence, all in confusion at the thought of the many grievous injuries I have done you.  I ask pardon for them with my whole heart, repenting of them for love of you, hating them above every other evil and ready to lose my life rather than offend you again.  And do you, most tender Virgin, mother of mercy and refuge of sinners, obtain for me the pardon of all my sins by virtue of your bitter pains and help me to so pray as to gain the indulgences attached to this, your most holy Rosary.

Come, Holy Spirit, fill the hearts of your faithful and enkindle in them the fire of you divine love.  Send forth you spirit and they shall be created and you shall renew the face of the earth.

Enlighten our minds , we beseech you, O Lord, with the light of your
brightness, that we might see what we ought to do and be able to do what is right, through Christ, Our Lord.

2. Announce the First Sorrow; then say the “Our Father.”
3. Say seven “Hail Marys,” while meditating on the Sorrow.
4. Repeat 1 and 2 continuing through all seven Sorrows.
5. Three “Hail Marys” are said at the end in honor of the Tears of Our Sorrowful Mother.
6. Our Father, Hail Mary, and Glory be to the Father, for the intention of the Pope.
7. Say “Virgin most Sorrowful, pray for us” three times.

Meditate on the following while reciting the prayers

The First Sorrow:
Let us meditate on the first Sorrow of the Blessed Virgin, when she presented her only son in the temple, laid him in the arms of holy Simeon, and heard
the prophetic words, “This one shall be a sword of sorrow to pierce your own

The Second Sorrow:
Mary flees into Egypt with Jesus and Joseph-
Forced to endure the hardships of a long journey, and becoming a foreigner in a strange land, Mary and her family flee to protect the child Jesus from those who would destroy him.

The Third Sorrow:
Mary seeks Jesus lost in Jerusalem-
Jesus disappeared for three days in Jerusalem at the age of twelve, causing his parents, especially Mary, agonizing sorrow.

The Fourth Sorrow:
Mary meets Jesus on the way to Calvary-
As Jesus makes his way to Calvary, condemned to crucifixion, He meets His mother, Mary.  He is bruised, derided, cursed and defiled and her sorrow is absolute as Jesus drags His own cross up the hill of His crucifixion.

The Fifth Sorrow:
Mary stands near the cross of her Son-
Mary stands near her dying Son unable to minister to him as he cries “I thirst”.  She hears him promise heaven to a thief and forgive his enemies.   His last words, “Behold your mother,” charge us to look on Mary as our mother.

The Sixth Sorrow:
Mary received the body of Jesus taken down from the cross-
The passion and death are over but for his mother, grief continues.  She holds His body in her arms.

The Seventh Sorrow:
Mary places the body of Jesus in the tomb, awaiting the resurrection-
The most tragic day in history ends, Mary alone in sorrow, as she lays the body of her Son, in the tomb.

Hail Mary
Hail Mary, Full of grace, the Lord is with thee. Blessed art thou among women, and Blessed is the fruit of thy womb, Jesus. Holy Mary Mother of God, pray for us sinners, now and at the hour of our death.Amen.

Our Father
Our Father who art in Heaven, hallowed be thy name. Thy Kingdom come, thy will be done, on Earth, as it is in Heaven. Give us this day our daily bread, and forgive us our trespasses as we forgive those who trespass against us, and lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil.

Glory Be
Glory be to the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, as it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Thanks to the Grotto, in Portland, OR for the prayer and if you get a chance to visit them and can support their ministry, please do!

History of Christianity II – Final Research Paper


Counter-Reformation for 500 Years

Jason M. Roebuck

Northwest Christian University

The Church of the Jesuits in Rome – Mother Church expelling Martin Luther and other heretics…

According to my research, the Council of Trent issued decrees between 1545 and 1563 that does attempt to make major reforms to the way the church ministers to the faithful, proving that the church was answering the questions posed by the Reformation. So, the question is can we prove that the church was and is attempting to bring Protestants back to the church. I will start out listing some of the grievances of the Protestant Reformation, and then list the decrees from the Council that answers each one of them. Finally, I will end with a discussion of later reformers, and how the church has the answer to even some of the later reformer’s questions as well. I will attempt to keep the Council of Trent and its’ decrees as the guiding force behind all of my arguments.

While researching my topic, I noticed a book that was referenced as a great resource to better understand the period leading up to the Council of Trent. In her book review, Elisabeth Hirsch says, “Jedin himself leaves the careful reader of the book with the impression that a “holier” Pope and less scheming rulers would have done a better job in the interest of the unity of the Church.” (Hirsch, 1958) She was talking about a book called, “A History of the Council of Trent Volume I: The Struggle for the Council”, by Hubert Jedin, and after reading her review completely, I felt I just had to have it. Unfortunately, when I read the book, it was a great historical account of the factors that called for a council before the first reformers came on the scene, as well as the logistical issues that were involved with calling all of the leaders of the church together into one location in Northern Italy. However, the only real insight that I received from his book would be a quote I found at the end of the book, that I could easily use for my own treatment of this topic for this final essay. He said, “Our exposition did not presume to summon to judgment those who bear responsibility-either to condemn them or to absolve them. Our first step was to explain, to understand. This done, it was necessary to appraise, that is, to assess the conduct of men in the light of the historical mission allotted to them. For the appreciations thus arrived at we claim no absolute validity; no such claim can be made, for though based on a firm Catholic view of events all such estimates are not the less conditioned by the writer’s personal conception of history.” (Jedin, 1949) After reading the full history of the events leading up to the Council of Trent, I was left with the impression that the understanding of the Council would be colored by my understanding of my faith, and this celebrated author was making sure I understood that. However, he continued to explain that in another 100 years, we could have a different understanding of these events, as well as the direction the Holy Spirit was leading the church by not providing the answers to the reformers questions in a more timely fashion.

On to the questions of the reformers, and how the Council of Trent was answering these questions. First, the reformers, especially Luther were concerned with how the indulgences were being sold or used to raise money for the church. It wasn’t until the 25th session of the council, after the selling of indulgences was formally condemned by the pope, which the indulgences were explained as to be used for the purposes of all the faithful, and not just those who could afford them. Second, the reformers seemed to question the implications of all of the sacraments, and the 7th session of the council made it very clear that all seven sacraments were instituted by Jesus Christ. Finally, as far as Baptism is concerned, the same session of the council defined the sacrament of Baptism to be as prescribed in the Catholic Church in the name of Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. It was also explained that it is not necessary to be at any certain age in order to receive the sacrament.

There were many more complaints that were brought up by the reformers, but it would be impossible to discuss them all without recreating a good portion of the documents of the Council of Trent in this final essay. Since it was not for another 350 years that another council was convened in the church, it is clear that the church and the world was pretty comfortable with the explanation that the church gave for the way that they wanted to live out their faith. In a research article about the counter-reformation, I read, “In turn, Catholic lay people have begun to emerge not merely as either passive recipients or fierce opponents of Tridentine reforms but as active participants in a dynamic process of cultural negotiation and interaction.” (Walsham, 2005) It is also clear from my research that no amount of clarification of these issues would have ever brought the reformers back from the path that they were already on toward the many different denominations of faith based on the particular movements away from the Catholic Church and the central authority of the papacy.

It was the fact that Jedin explains, where he gives so many reasons that the church was moving toward reform before the issues that were raised by the reformers early in the 16th century, as well the fact that the church was still reaching out to the reformers during the Council of Trent and the councils that followed throughout the past 500 years, that tells me the church will never stop trying to answer the issues that were brought up by the reformers as reasons to break from it. You might assume, as I did, that I would end with a treatment of how we have come so far in our understanding of conciliar movements in the church, that we need only look at the Second Vatican Council to see the many attempts that the church made there at bringing many great minds together to help move the church into the next phase of operations. However, it was a conference that was recently held at the Vatican that I would point to as a better illustration of the fact that the church is reaching out to leaders of all faiths to help explain the issues of our day. Specifically, it was the Humanum Conference in November of 2014 that shows the length that the modern church is willing to go to, in order to make sure the world hears the voices of many different faith leaders, in order to express the solidarity of the church. It was convened for the purpose of upholding the sanctity of marriage. They invited Pastor Rick Warren from Saddleback Church to speak, as well as Princeton Professor, Robert George. They included in the discussion, participants from the Pentecostal church, Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism, Sikhism and the Church of Latter-Day Saints. One of the fruits of this effort was a video presentation that was a beautiful explanation of the beauty of marriage that was shown to the participants and is now available on YouTube for anyone to view or use for the purposes of instruction. Finally, it is this example that gives me hope that many of the leaders of the Reformed churches will continue looking for ways that all Christians can come together to bring about the salvation of the world, or at least anyone who, by the grace of God, will listen to the Good News.


Hirsch, E. F. (1958). A History of the Council of Trent. Church History, p 378-379.

Jedin, H. (1949). A History of the Council of Trent Volume I: The Struggle for the Council. Freiburg: Herder & Co.

Walsham, A. (2005). Translating Trent? English Catholicism and the Counter Reformation. Historical Research, p288-310.

Saint James, pray for us!


As we celebrate the feast day of James the Great, we remember that he, like us, had to drop his net in order to follow Jesus. We hear in the gospel today that his mother implored Jesus to let him sit at His right hand in the Kingdom. His mother, if she is anything like our mothers, would probably asked Jesus this, even if James had not dropped his net to follow Him. But he did, and because he did, the answer Jesus gives is even more important to those of us that have dropped our nets. He says that we have only the promise of drinking from the chalice that he drank from. The chalice of suffering and persecution at the hands of our own people. It is not an easy message to hear, but we must know that when we look for glory we are asking for  something that is not ours to have. All glory and honor be to God for giving us His Son to teach us this valuable lesson today and every day for the rest of our time on earth.

He replied, “My cup you will indeed drink, but to sit at my right and at my left [, this] is not mine to give but is for those for whom it has been prepared by my Father.” (Matthew 20:23)

Our Father, who art in Heaven. Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done on earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. Forgive us our trespasses, as we forgive those who trespass against us. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil…Amen!

An appeal to the savior…(Not just Jesus, we are called!)


So, it hit me like a ton of bricks just a minute ago.  I was wondering why I have not been able to write this post that has been heavy on my heart for some time now.  (Probably about six months…)  The reason I can never write it, is because when I feel worthy to write it, I am too busy being “holy” that I don’t take the time necessary to write it.  However, today is one of those days where I know that I have failed to live out my calling as a father and husband, and I am in need of a good confession, but instead of running to confession like I would normally do, I am taking the time to write this post before I am back in communion with Jesus and his church and start back on my path to Sainthood.  I am not recommending this as a method of writing, but for this purpose I think God is using this moment of clarity to inspire me to write this without my need to fix anyone with my temporary holiness.  (I can’t fix anyone, if I can’t stop breaking myself…)

Anyway, here goes…I have been thinking about the fact that we are all in communion with each other, when we are in communion with God, even when we are not in communion with God, we are still in the same Spirit, and therefore we are connected.  “But whoever is joined to the Lord becomes one spirit with him.”  (1 Corinthians 6:17  NABRE)  So, what does this mean for when we use each other, instead of loving each other?  For instance, when a man looks lustfully at a woman, we would all agree that the effect of that look is harmful to the man who looks at the woman.  “But I say to you, everyone who looks at a woman with lust has already committed adultery with her in his heart.”  (Matthew 5:28 NABRE)  Therefore, the man or woman is out of communion with God until they repent of this sin, confess it and receive absolution.  However, what effect does this have on the woman who is the object of the lust?  I submit, in my opinion by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, that the woman is somehow effected negatively as the object of this lustful desire that stems from the flesh of the man.

Now, I will make my appeal to the men and women who are reading this; in a way that I think should speak to us in the depths of our soul.  We are called to be the protector of the people in our life.  “Then the LORD asked Cain, Where is your brother Abel? He answered, “I do not know. Am I my brother’s keeper?”  (Genesis 4:9)  We can’t be a protector of our brothers and sisters, if we are giving in to the baser instincts of lust that well up from our flesh.  So, we need to guard our minds from falling prey to the temptation that comes from looking too long at images of people that would be so much more, if we did not see them as objects of desire but rather children of the same God that created us.

I have heard the question asked before, “Why would a woman or man who talks about wanting to be more respected for the beautiful creation of God that he or she is wear revealing clothing that leaves little to the imagination .  Is he or she a casualty of a culture that objectifies women’s or men’s bodies?  I submit to you that he or she may just be reacting to the change that has been happening to them since they were very young.  If they have been told from an early age that their body is a temple and therefore should be protected as such, they may not be reacting to the same change.  “Do you not know that your body is a temple* of the holy Spirit within you, whom you have from God, and that you are not your own?”  (1 Corinthian 6:19)  Many children are being told from an early age that they need to wear sexy or revealing outfits and dance close to the line of modesty in order to be attractive.  This is be the reason they react to the metamorphosis that is a result of the many lustful looks that have somehow made them broken.

I know that I will have lost any progressive or liberal readers at this point, so I think I might as well go all in and follow this logic to its ultimate conclusion.  Is it any wonder why people feel it is necessary to show so much skin in order to be “liked” on social media.  Actually, I would say that it is about more than just being “liked”, they are convinced that real love in the real world can only be found by appealing to that lust.  The Word of God teaches us otherwise. “Avoid immorality. Every other sin a person commits is outside the body, but the immoral person sins against his own body.*” (1 Corinthians 6:18)

I woke up this morning to an episode of “Toddlers and Tiaras” and on the episode one of the mother’s said that her church had excommunicated her because she allowed her daughter to be in these pageants.  It seems a little excessive to me to excommunicate someone for such a seemingly benign action of letting her daughter compete in these pageants, but her statement about it was quite revealing.  She said, “It is not like I am put her up on a “stripper” pole or something.”  It is not like she is putting her on a “stripper” pole, it is exactly that.  She is teaching her child that she is defined by the way other people see her beauty.  Beauty is in the eyes of the beholder; sounds like a great maxim to live by.  However, the only beholder I want to be judged by, or more importantly, to have my children judged by,  is the creator of the universe.  The Psalmist says, “I praise you, because I am wonderfully made; wonderful are your works! My very self you know.”  (Psalms 139:14  NABRE)

Question…How do we kill the lust that wells up in our hearts when we are led astray by the evil one?  Do we tell people that the answer is just to go live in a cave with their eyes closed for a couple of days until the feeling passes, or do we raise our children to guard the hearts of their brothers and sisters in Christ, and their own self worth by dressing modestly.  By the way, isn’t it meant to be shared with our husbands and wives alone?   The Catechism of the Catholic Church says this,

2353 Fornication is carnal union between an unmarried man and an unmarried woman. It is gravely contrary to the dignity of persons and of human sexuality which is naturally ordered to the good of spouses and the generation and education of children. Moreover, it is a grave scandal when there is corruption of the young.

OK, I guess either answer is correct for the situation that you find yourself in, but I would hope if you are a parent that you share the words from scripture that I have quoted here with your kids. “Do you not know that your bodies are members of Christ? Shall I then take Christ’s members and make them the members of a prostitute?* Of course not! [Or] do you not know that anyone who joins himself to a prostitute becomes one body with her? For “the two,” it says, “will become one flesh.”  (1 Corinthians 6:15-16) My hope is that we could create a new generation of young people that are more concerned with the way that God sees them, and less about how members of the opposite sex sees them.

Peace of Christ,


Final Paper for Communication Theory class…









Pointless Relational Dialectics without Faith

Jason M. Roebuck

Northwest Christian University





















    The idea of reviewing three articles and keeping a central theme to my review seemed very difficult before I read the three articles. After reading them, I realized that the idea that we can analyze any relationship or communication between people without somehow using the faith that leads people to the driving force behind their communication is ridiculous. Here is the heading and articles that I used for my literature review:


Relational Dialectics

























    As I read the first article, I started to regret picking this topic, because I quickly realized that the discussion about relational dialectics was going to center around the scientific research with a lack of concern for the faith background of the people surveyed in the study. When analyzing the first article’s data, I did not see any reference to if the couples were married in the church, or even if they were monogamous. It was concerning to me because the answers that the respondents gave to the questions about their long-distance relationships with their spouses that were deployed during wartime could have been analyzed differently if we knew the religious affiliation and/or their feelings toward maintaining a monogamous relationship with their spouse. Conclusions were drawn in the first article that were unrelated to the foundation of the relationships.

    The second article, which was more interesting to me because it was concerning one of the social media outlets that is a large part of my current ministry as a youth ministry coordinator and director of religious education. Facebook and the impact that it has on the formation of young adults in their early years is something that interests me in a way that could have been transformative to my work in young adult and youth ministry, had the article done a little more research to start the study. However, as I read this article, I came to the same conclusion that I drew from the first article. The fact that the young adults were not consulted about their religious affiliation as part of their study should color the results that were given. If not, they at least would lend some credibility to the results that were stated in the article. The respondents mentioned their need to contact old friends, as well as the need for sharing media with new friends, without even a word about the real purpose of their attempts at connecting with them. It would be interesting to know the results of the same questions that were posed, if they were posed with the idea that disclosure of their religious affiliation could be helpful. For instance, a guy who spends a lot of time connecting with girlfriends online, might very well be perfectly normal if he is doing it with the purpose of sharing his faith with them. However, it would be creepy, if he was connecting with them because he was looking to hook up.

    Now, after reading the first two articles and coming to the conclusions that I have stated above, I was really concerned about the third article because of the concerns that I had about my father and his affiliation with AA in the past. I was worried because my father had always touted the great work of AA, and related it to the idea that he did not have to name his higher power in order to work through the 12 step program that led him to sobriety. However, he did mention how he had to fake it to make it, through most of his recovery. Meaning, he had to pretend to believe, in order for the program to work for him. The third article restored my faith in researchers that study the theory of relational dialectics, because it showed that many of the people involved in the program were happy to talk about their difficulty with religion and therefore struggled with the overall effectiveness of the program. It discusses accurately the fact that surrender to an unknown God is problematic for people that espouse themselves as belonging or not belonging to certain religion. I mean, at least they were honest about it, but it showed me that finally the conclusions that I had drawn from the first two articles were clearly spelled out after reading the final article. In my final analysis of the third article, an issue that was brought to my mind during the discussion of non-Catholic AA respondents in the article that used their disdain for the church for their embracing the pluralistic understanding of spirituality.


    The title of my paper, “Pointless Relational Dialectics without Faith” was justified in this last article, because it clearly spelled out the need for respondents to accept the faith of the program in which they were involved. Granted, a deployed spouse, young adults entering college, and AA patient are completely different demographic categories. The truth is that all of their lives, are directly linked to the decisions they make in following their faith. Possibly more important is the fact that anyone who believes themselves to be superior to another because of their affiliation or lack of affiliation with a certain group of believers/unbelievers is problematic because we believe that all humanity has fallen short of the glory of God. “For there is no distinction; all have sinned and are deprived of the glory of God.” (Romans 3:22-23 NABRE) Therefore, when we leave out the discussion of religion when we discuss issues that are closely related to the human experience, it becomes difficult to relate to the people who respond in the survey. I have often drawn the parallel of an alcoholic who attends AA meetings, to a sinner who attends daily Mass in the Catholic Church. I am comfortable with the parallel that I have drawn, because I have accepted the fact that my struggle with sinful tendencies in my human nature are not different than someone who struggles with drinking too much. Therefore, I attend daily Mass as often as possible to display to God my willingness to lean of His grace to save me from myself. As Saint Paul says, “For I know that good does not dwell in me, that is, in my flesh. The willing is ready at hand, but doing the good is not. For I do not do the good I want, but I do the evil I do not want.” (Romans 7:18-19) The truth is everything that we do is related to how we relate to our Creator, so it would make more sense to relate the studies we do about humanity to the way the humans we are studying relate to their Creator. My name is Jason, and I am a sinner in need of a savior. Thanks be to God for Jesus Christ, our Lord and Savior.